Max Gerber] I am often asked whether I agree with the new group selectionists, and the questioners are always surprised when I say I do not. After all, group selection sounds like a reasonable extension of evolutionary theory and a plausible explanation of the social nature of humans.
It is a multidimensional concept,  inspired by the premise that all living beings have the spark of the divine spiritual energy; therefore, to hurt another being is to hurt oneself. It has also been related to the notion that any violence has karmic consequences.
While ancient scholars of Hinduism pioneered and over time perfected the principles of Ahimsa, the concept reached an extraordinary status in the ethical philosophy of Jainism. Over time, the Hindu scripts revise ritual practices and the concept of Ahimsa is increasingly refined and emphasised, ultimately Ahimsa becomes the highest virtue by the late Vedic era about BC.
For example, hymn It bars violence against "all creatures" sarvabhuta and the practitioner of Ahimsa is said to escape from the cycle of rebirths CU 8.
It implies the total avoidance of harming of any kind of living creatures not only by deeds, but also by words and in thoughts. For example, Mahaprasthanika Parva has the verse: Ahimsa is the highest virtueAhimsa is the highest self-control, Ahimsa is the greatest gift, Ahimsa is the best suffering, Ahimsa is the highest sacrifice, Ahimsa is the finest strength, Ahimsa is the greatest friend, Ahimsa is the greatest happiness, Ahimsa is the highest truth, and Ahimsa is the greatest teaching.
The Bhagavad Gitaamong other things, discusses the doubts and questions about appropriate response when one faces systematic violence or war. These verses develop the concepts of lawful violence in self-defence and the theories of just war. However, there is no consensus on this interpretation.
Gandhi, for example, considers this debate about non-violence and lawful violence as a mere metaphor for the internal war within each human being, when he or she faces moral questions. These discussions have led to theories of just war, theories of reasonable self-defence and theories of proportionate punishment.
Force must be the last resort. If war becomes necessary, its cause must be just, its purpose virtuous, its objective to restrain the wicked, its aim peace, its method lawful. Weapons used must be proportionate to the opponent and the aim of war, not indiscriminate tools of destruction.
Warriors must use judgment in the battlefield. Cruelty to the opponent during war is forbidden. Wounded, unarmed opponent warriors must not be attacked or killed, they must be brought to your realm and given medical treatment.
While the war is in progress, sincere dialogue for peace must continue. Aikidopioneered in Japan, illustrates one such principles of self-defence. Morihei Ueshibathe founder of Aikido, described his inspiration as Ahimsa. One must presume that some people will, out of ignorance, error or fear, attack other persons or intrude into their space, physically or verbally.
The aim of self-defence, suggested Ueshiba, must be to neutralise the aggression of the attacker, and avoid the conflict. The best defence is one where the victim is protected, as well as the attacker is respected and not injured if possible.What results when a society abandons principles?
I do not mean specific principles, I mean the very concept of a principle. Here are some examples. The official home page of the New York State Unified Court System.
We hear more than three million cases a year involving almost every type of endeavor. We hear family matters, personal injury claims, commercial disputes, trust and estates issues, criminal cases, and landlord-tenant cases. Ahimsa is the highest virtue, Ahimsa is the highest self-control, Ahimsa is the greatest gift, Ahimsa is the best suffering, Ahimsa is the highest sacrifice, Ahimsa is the finest strength.
Overview of violence in the Hebrew Bible: Biblical scholar Raymond Schwager: " has found passages of explicit violence in the Hebrew Bible [a.k.a.
Old Testament], verses where God's own violent actions of punishment are described, passages where God expressly commands others to kill people, and several stories where God .
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The monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force, also known as the monopoly on violence (German: Gewaltmonopol des Staates), is a core concept of modern public law, which goes back to Jean Bodin's work Les Six livres de la République and Thomas Hobbes' book Leviathan.  As the defining conception of the .