Ecological Fallacy also known as:
Equivocation — the misleading use of a term with more than one meaning by glossing over which meaning is intended at a particular time.
The arguer advances the controversial position, but when challenged, they insist that they are only advancing the more modest position. See also the if-by-whiskey fallacy, below.
Ecological fallacy — inferences about the nature of specific individuals are based solely upon aggregate statistics collected for the group to which those individuals belong.
Related to the appeal to authority not always fallacious. False dilemma false dichotomy, fallacy of bifurcation, black-or-white fallacy — two alternative statements are held to be the only possible options when in reality there are more.
Historical fallacy — a set of considerations is thought to hold good only because a completed process is read into the content of the process which conditions this completed result. Explains without actually explaining the real nature of a function or a process.
Instead, it explains the concept in terms of the concept itself, without first defining or explaining the original concept. Explaining thought as something produced by a little thinker, a sort of homunculus inside the head, merely explains it as another kind of thinking as different but the same.
Incomplete comparison — insufficient information is provided to make a complete comparison. Inconsistent comparison — different methods of comparison are used, leaving a false impression of the whole comparison. Intentionality fallacy — the insistence that the ultimate meaning of an expression must be consistent with the intention of the person from whom the communication originated e.
Mind projection fallacy — subjective judgments are "projected" to be inherent properties of an object, rather than being related to personal perceptions of that object. Moralistic fallacy — inferring factual conclusions from purely evaluative premises in violation of fact—value distinction.
For instance, inferring is from ought is an instance of moralistic fallacy. Moralistic fallacy is the inverse of naturalistic fallacy defined below.
Moving the goalposts raising the bar — argument in which evidence presented in response to a specific claim is dismissed and some other often greater evidence is demanded. Nirvana fallacy perfect-solution fallacy — solutions to problems are rejected because they are not perfect.
Onus probandi — from the Latin onus probandi incumbit ei qui dicit, non ei qui negat the burden of proof is on the person who makes the claim, not on the person who denies or questions the claim.
It is a particular case of the argumentum ad ignorantiam fallacy, here the burden is shifted on the person defending against the assertion. Also known as " shifting the burden of proof ".
Proving too much — using a form of argument that, if it were valid, could be used to reach an additional, invalid conclusion. Referential fallacy  — assuming all words refer to existing things and that the meaning of words reside within the things they refer to, as opposed to words possibly referring to no real object or that the meaning of words often comes from how they are used.
Reification concretism, hypostatization, or the fallacy of misplaced concreteness — a fallacy of ambiguity, when an abstraction abstract belief or hypothetical construct is treated as if it were a concrete, real event or physical entity. In other words, it is the error of treating as a "real thing" something that is not a real thing, but merely an idea.The MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Law and Neuroscience.
Thesis resource paper. You want to do an action research thesis? You want to do an action research thesis? -- How to conduct and report action research (including a. Ecological Fallacy (also known as: ecological inference fallacy) Description: T he interpretation of statistical data where inferences about the nature of individuals are deduced from inference for the group to which those individuals belong.
Logical Form: Group X has characteristic Y. Person 1 is in group X. Therefore, person 1 has characteristic Y.
ECOLOGICAL FALLACY The ecological fallacy is the logical fallacy of interpreting general data too particularly or minutely. An example would be projecting to the level of individuals the generalizations that apply to a population.
The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. individuals or organizations. The implications of this ecological fallacy include the development of invalid culture-related theory and the persistence of erroneous practitioner stereotyping.
We provide the first comprehensive explanation of the origins, effects and implications of the ecological fallacy in national culture research and practice.