Christian Persecution in India: The Real Story We have heard about what the Christians in India have called the persecutions against them.
Concerned that France would block British access to the eastern Mediterranean and thereby threaten critical trade routes to India, the British navy collaborated with Ottoman authorities to evict French troops from Egypt.
From this episode until decolonization in the mid- twentieth century, British policies in the region reflected the interplay of Great Power rivalries and the balancing of strategic and economic interests.
This essay surveys the history of British imperialism in the Middle East by examining four major periods of interaction: For the purposes of this essay, the Middle East is defined as the region ranging from Egypt to Iran and from Turkey to Yemen.
With the notable exception of Iran, which remained a center of independent Islamic government for centuries, this region in the nineteenth century fell largely within the orbit of the Ottoman Empire, an Islamic sultanate that was based after in Istanbul.
At its peak in the seventeenth century, and before the onset of the economic and territorial contraction that accompanied the rise of Western imperialism in the Middle East, the Ottoman Empire ruled over a vast multicultural domain in southeastern Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa as far west as Algeria.
As early asEnglish merchants like their Venetian, French, and other European counterparts secured formal commercial privileges for trading in the Ottoman Empire and later gained comparable rights in Iran. Called capitulations in English, from the Latin term capitulas referring to the topics or clauses of the agreements, these privileges were renegotiated several times over the next two centuries.
They proved significant as the basis for a series of extrajudicial and fiscal rights that Britons continued to enjoy in the Middle East until the early twentieth century. Accumulated literary and artistic representations of the exotic, despotic East, retrograde and debauched, also provided the foil against which late nineteenth-century British writers constructed an image of the British national and imperial character as rational, modern, moral, and strong.
By the end of the eighteenth century, when Britain stood poised to expand its influence in the Middle East, the Ottoman Empire had already begun to suffer military losses to Austria, Russia, and France and to lose territories along its fringes, for example, in Hungary and the Crimea.
At the same time, Iran, newly consolidated under the Qajar dynasty r. The third objective was related to what nineteenth-century observers called the Eastern Question—that is, the challenge of preserving the Ottoman Empire in order to avoid inflaming both competition between the Great Powers and the generally contentious atmosphere created by Western imperial At the end of the eighteenth century, British trade in the eastern Mediterranean lands of the Ottoman Empire the Levant region accounted for a mere 1 percent of total British foreign trade.
In the aftermath of the Napoleonic conquest of Egypt, Britain significantly improved its economic status in the region by using its good favor with Ottoman authorities to secure advantageous trading agreements. Britain was a major supplier of cheap colored cotton textiles which constituted more than half of its exports to the Middle East until the s and also supplied what some economic historians call colonial goods— commodities such as Caribbean sugar and Indian tea that came from the larger British empire.
In return Britain secured long-staple cotton from Egypt and other food and animal products such as dates, barley, and leather. By the s British transport from the eastern Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean occurred along two main routes: The vital importance of the Suez route was confirmed afterwhen a French engineering firm cut a waterway through the kilometer-wide mile-wide isthmus, creating the Suez Canal.
Britain was initially concerned about the prospect of a French invasion of India through Iran and Afghanistan, but this threat had dissipated by the time the Napoleonic wars ended in Neither Britain nor Russia wanted the other power to seize control over Iran because the region was strategically valuable to both.
This Anglo-Russian competition over Iran, which endured into the twentieth century, preserved the weak central government of the Qajar shahs from formal colonial takeover.
Instead, Britain and Russia vied to exert their influence in Iran politically, by supplying military and foreign policy advisors, and economically, by securing trade privileges and concessions pertaining to commodities and services.
Britain negotiated an advantageous commercial treaty with Iran inwhile in the late nineteenth century British concerns won concessions to develop a telegraph system and a modern central bank in Tehran.
Edward, Prince of Wales, Visits Aden. Edward, prince of Wales, is greeted with a banner proclaiming support for his father, King George V, during a state visit to Aden, a British protectorate in what is now Yemen.
As mentioned above, British strategists worried about maintaining Ottoman territorial integrity in order to avert wars and contests for influence among the Great Powers themselves. On two major occasions, during the Crimean War and the Russo-Turkish WarBritain formed alliances with the Ottomans to counteract Russian expansion.
Britain used both occasions to extract advantages for itself. Infor example, Britain helped to persuade the Ottoman sultan to issue the famous Humayun decree one of the landmark measures of the mid-nineteenth-century Ottoman Tanzimat, or reformist, periodwhich proclaimed religious equality among Muslims, Christians, and Jews.
In theory if not in practice, this decree reversed the traditional Islamic imperial assumption of Muslim hegemony over non-Muslim subjects dhimmis. Inmeanwhile, Britain persuaded the Ottoman authorities to grant it the island of Cyprus as a naval base, leading to a form of British control over Cyprus that persisted until and that outlasted the Ottoman Empire itself by forty years.We know the British imposed a policy of one way free trade on India after and the invasion of British manufactures, in particular cotton textiles, immediately followed.
Indian goods made with primitive techniques could not compete with goods produced on a mass scale by . Impact of British Rule in India Impact of British Rule in India was virtually unprecedented, as it has affected the economic, socio-cultural, religious and political state of the country.
India was under British colonial rule from till There were many changes in the policies, economy and various other circles of life that happened in Indian’s life and country in general during British colonial rule. Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj ", lit.
"rule" in Hindi) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian ashio-midori.com is variously taken to have commenced in , after the Battle of Plassey, when Mir Jafar, the new Nawab of Bengal enthroned by Robert Clive, .
Impact of British Rule in India The impact of British rule in India had been widespread throughout the country and affected all the aspects of social, political and economic views of India. The Invasion of British to India had perhaps emerged during the 16th century, when British missionaries had sailed to India to spread Christianity.
The East India Company officers lived like princes, the company finances were in shambles, and the company's effectiveness in India was examined by the British crown after As a result, the East India Company lost its powers of government and British India formally came under direct British rule, with an appointed Governor-General of India.