In my opinion each of these theories has their own merits. Although to some extent they may branch out into Place trying to understand the environment that creates these creative people and to a lesser extent Process.
Origins[ edit ] One of humanistic psychology's early sources was the work of Carl Rogerswho was strongly influenced by Otto Rankwho broke with Freud in the mids. Rogers' focus was to ensure that the developmental processes led to healthier, if not more creative, personality functioning.
The term 'actualizing tendency' was also coined by Rogers, and was a concept that eventually led Abraham Maslow to study self-actualization as one of the needs of humans.
Conceptual origins[ edit ] The humanistic approach has its roots in phenomenological and existentialist thought  see KierkegaardNietzscheHeideggerMerleau-Ponty and Sartre. Eastern philosophy and psychology also play a central role in humanistic psychology, as well as Judeo-Christian philosophies of personalismas each shares similar concerns about the nature of human existence and consciousness.
As behaviorism grew out of Ivan Pavlov 's work with the conditioned reflex, and laid the foundations for academic psychology in the United States associated with the names of John B. SkinnerAbraham Maslow gave behaviorism the name "the second force". The humanistic psychology perspective is summarized by five Humanistic theory of creativity principles or postulates of humanistic psychology first articulated in an article written by James Bugental in  and adapted by Tom Greening,  psychologist and long-time editor of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology.
The five basic principles of humanistic psychology are: Human beings, as human, supersede the sum of their parts. They cannot be reduced to components. Human beings have their existence in a uniquely human context, as well as in a cosmic ecology. Human beings are aware and are aware of being aware - i.
Human consciousness always includes an awareness of oneself in the context of other people. Human beings have the ability to make choices and therefore have responsibility.
Human beings are intentional, aim at goals, are aware that they cause future events, and seek meaning, value, and creativity. While humanistic psychology is a specific division within the American Psychological Association Division 32humanistic psychology is not so much a discipline within psychology as a perspective on the human condition that informs psychological research and practice.
Practical origins[ edit ] WWII created practical pressures on military psychologists, they had more patients to see and care for than time or resources permitted.
The origins of group therapy are here. Orientation to scientific research[ edit ] Humanistic psychologists generally do not believe that we will understand human consciousness and behavior through Cartesian-Newtonian scientific research.
Abraham Maslow proposed many of his theories of human growth in the form of testable hypotheses,    and he encouraged human scientists to put them to the test. Shortly after the founding of the American Association of Humanistic Psychology, its president, psychologist Sidney Jourardbegan his column by declaring that "research" is a priority.
Likewise, inthe American Psychological Association 's publication for humanistic psychology Division 32 of APA ran an article titled, What makes research humanistic?
A human science view is not opposed to quantitative methods, but, following Edmund Husserl: Consequently, much of the subject matter of psychology lends itself to qualitative approaches e. Research has remained part of the humanistic psychology agenda, though with more of a holistic than reductionistic focus.
Specific humanistic research methods evolved in the decades following the formation of the humanistic psychology movement. Subsequently, graduate programs in Humanistic Psychology at institutions of higher learning grew in number and enrollment.
Division 32 publishes its own academic journal called The Humanistic Psychologist. Maslow was heavily influenced by Kurt Goldstein during their years together at Brandeis University. Psychoanalytic writers also influenced humanistic psychology.
Maslow himself famously acknowledged his "indebtedness to Freud" in Towards a Psychology of Being  Other psychoanalytic influences include the work of Wilhelm Reichwho discussed an essentially 'good', healthy core self and Character Analysisand Carl Gustav Jung 's mythological and archetypal emphasis.
Schneiderand Ken Wilber. The aim of humanistic therapy is usually to help the client develop a stronger and healthier sense of self, also called self-actualization.
This type of therapy is insight-based, meaning that the therapist attempts to provide the client with insights about their inner conflicts.
Among the earliest approaches we find the developmental theory of Abraham Maslowemphasizing a hierarchy of needs and motivations; the existential psychology of Rollo May acknowledging human choice and the tragic aspects of human existence; and the person-centered or client-centered therapy of Carl Rogerswhich is centered on the client's capacity for self-direction and understanding of his or her own development.
They are free to define themselves and do whatever it is they want to do. This is a type of humanistic therapy that forces the client to explore the meaning of their life, as well as its purpose. There is a conflict between having freedoms and having limitations.
Examples of limitations include genetics, culture, and many other factors. Existential therapy involves trying to resolve this conflict.
Role playing also plays a large role in Gestalt therapy and allows for a true expression of feelings that may not have been shared in other circumstances. In Gestalt therapy, non-verbal cues are an important indicator of how the client may actually be feeling, despite the feelings expressed. Also part of the range of humanistic psychotherapy are concepts from depth therapyholistic healthencounter groupssensitivity trainingmarital and family therapiesbody workthe existential psychotherapy of Medard Boss and Positive Psychology.Humanistic Learning Theory - 1 HUMANISTIC LEARNING THEORY By Andrew P.
Johnson Minnesota State University, Mankato [email protected] ashio-midori.com This is an excerpt from my book: Education Psychology: Theories of Learning and Human Development ().
Humanistic psychology, also known as the humanistic approach, is an approach or perspective of studying psychology. This approach is quite broad and applies to the society at large. A major problem of this theory is that it is vast and focuses on irrational issues. Humanism is a school of thought that believes human beings are different from other species and possess capacities not found in animals (Edwords, ).
Humanists, therefore, give primacy to the study of human needs and interests. A central assumption is that human beings behave out of intentionality and values (Kurtz, ).
DownloadedBy:Robbins,BrentDeanAtJune Positive psychologists have consistently credited humanistic psychology for pioneering the territory of . The Five Major Theories of Creativity. There are five major theories of creativity each with its own unique viewpoint on what creates creativity in people.
Prelude. Muslim scholarship Regarding the many historical influences determining the outbreak of the Renaissance, the earliest phase of humanistic modernism, at the end of Medieval Europe, one should not (as was & is usually done by Europacentrists to suggest the originality of modernism) underestimate the major role played by the masters of Arab (Muslim) sciences in general (their.