Introduction Feminism brings many things to philosophy including not only a variety of particular moral and political claims, but ways of asking and answering questions, critiques of mainstream philosophical views and methods, and new topics of inquiry. Feminist contributions to and interventions in mainstream philosophical debates are covered in entries under "Feminism, interventions". Entries covered under the rubric "Feminism, topics" concern philosophical issues that arise as feminists articulate accounts of sexism, critique sexist social and cultural practices, and develop alternative visions of a just world. In short, they are philosophical topics that arise within feminism.
Yellowj Agency theory suggests that the firm can be viewed as a nexus of contracts loosely defined between resource holders. An agency relationship arises whenever one or more individuals, called principals, hire one or more other individuals, called agents, to perform some service and then delegate decision-making authority to the agents.
The primary agency relationships in business are those 1 between stockholders and managers and 2 between debtholders and stockholders. These relationships are not necessarily harmonious; indeed, agency theory is concerned with so-called agency conflicts, or conflicts of interest between agents and principals.
This has implications for, among other things, corporate governance and business ethics. When agency occurs it also tends to give rise to agency costs, which are expenses incurred in order to sustain an effective agency relationship e. Accordingly, agency theory has emerged as a dominant model in the financial economics literature, and is widely discussed in business ethics texts.
Agency theory in a formal sense originated in the early s, but the concepts behind it have a long and varied history. Among the influences are property-rights theories, organization economics, contract law, and political philosophy, including the works of Locke and Hobbes. A corporation's managers may have personal goals that compete with the owner's goal of maximization of shareholder wealth.
Since the shareholders authorize managers to administer the firm's assets, a potential conflict of interest exists between the two groups. Agency theory suggests that, in imperfect labor and capital markets, managers will seek to maximize their own utility at the expense of corporate shareholders.
Agents have the ability to operate in their own self-interest rather than in the best interests of the firm because of asymmetric information e. Evidence of self-interested managerial behavior includes the consumption of some corporate resources in the form of perquisites and the avoidance of optimal risk positions, whereby risk-averse managers bypass profitable opportunities in which the firm's shareholders would prefer they invest.
Outside investors recognize that the firm will make decisions contrary to their best interests. Accordingly, investors will discount the prices they are willing to pay for the firm's securities.
A potential agency conflict arises whenever the manager of a firm owns less than percent of the firm's common stock.
If a firm is a sole proprietorship managed by the owner, the owner-manager will undertake actions to maximize his or her own welfare. The owner-manager will probably measure utility by personal wealth, but may trade off other considerations, such as leisure and perquisites, against personal wealth.
If the owner-manager forgoes a portion of his or her ownership by selling some of the firm's stock to outside investors, a potential conflict of interest, called an agency conflict, arises.
For example, the owner-manager may prefer a more leisurely lifestyle and not work as vigorously to maximize shareholder wealth, because less of the wealth will now accrue to the owner-manager.
In addition, the owner-manager may decide to consume more perquisites, because some of the cost of the consumption of benefits will now be borne by the outside shareholders. In the majority of large publicly traded corporations, agency conflicts are potentially quite significant because the firm's managers generally own only a small percentage of the common stock.
Therefore, shareholder wealth maximization could be subordinated to an assortment of other managerial goals. For instance, managers may have a fundamental objective of maximizing the size of the firm. By creating a large, rapidly growing firm, executives increase their own status, create more opportunities for lower- and middle-level managers and salaries, and enhance their job security because an unfriendly takeover is less likely.
As a result, incumbent management may pursue diversification at the expense of the shareholders who can easily diversify their individual portfolios simply by buying shares in other companies.
Managers can be encouraged to act in the stockholders' best interests through incentives, constraints, and punishments.MyRSU helps students, faculty and staff manage their life at RSU all in one convenient place.
See classes and complete assignments in eLearning (MyCourses). Introduction of Agency Theory Words | 6 Pages Introduction of Agency Theory The specific definition of the theory based on the sources ashio-midori.com and ashio-midori.com defined that the agency theory is a theory explaining the relationship between .
Study introduction to sociology online free by downloading OpenStax's Introduction to Sociology 2e textbook and using our accompanying online resources.
Social theories are analytical frameworks, or paradigms, that are used to study and interpret social phenomena. A tool used by social scientists, social theories relate to historical debates over the validity and reliability of different methodologies (e.g.
positivism and antipositivism), the primacy of either structure or agency, as well as the relationship between contingency and necessity. Introduction to Agency Law Why Is Agency Law Important, and What Is an Agent? An agent is a person who acts in the name of and on behalf of another, having been given and assumed some degree of authority to do so.
CURRENT TRENDS IN THE PRACTICE OF COUNSELING. Dr. Krishna Prasad Sreedhar Introduction Perspective of Counseling Theory and Practice of Counseling.
Free Online Practice Theory Test Questions for Bus drivers To prepare for the theory test the Driving Standards Agency (DSA) recommend that all candidates . This paper integrates elements from the theory of agency, the theory of property rights and the theory of finance to develop a theory of the ownership structure of the firm. MyRSU helps students, faculty and staff manage their life at RSU all in one convenient place. See classes and complete assignments in eLearning (MyCourses).