Visual experience appears in the form of a continuous space containing perceived objects that occupy discrete volumes of that space, with spatially extended colored surfaces observed on the exposed faces of perceived objects. It is a picture-like experience whose information content is equal to the information content of a three-dimensional painted model, like a museum diorama, or a theater set. A number of Gestalt illusions suggest a field-like computational principle in perception.
Learning Objectives This is a beginning to intermediate level course. After completing this course, mental health professionals will be able to: Outline the history of ADHD as a mental disorder.
Describe the core symptoms of ADHD. Discuss associated impairments and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Explain the typical developmental course and demographic distribution of ADHD.
Discuss the various etiologies that contribute to the development of ADHD. Apply a theoretical model of executive function and self-regulation to the clinical management of ADHD. The materials in this course are based on the most accurate information available to the author at the time of writing.
The field of ADHD grows daily, and new information may emerge that supersedes these course materials. This course will equip clinicians to have a basic understanding of the nature of ADHD, the history of the disorder, its causes, and its associated disorders and impairments.
Introduction This course provides an overview of the nature of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, briefly considers its history, describes its developmental course and outcomes, and discusses its causes. Current critical issues related to these matters will be raised along the way.
Given the thousands of scientific papers on this topic, this course must, of necessity, concentrate on the most important topics in this literature. This theory shows that ADHD involves more than just attention deficits — it also comprises central problems with inhibition, self-regulation, and the cross-temporal organization of social behavior, the phenotypic effects of which radiate outward to impact various zones of social, educational, and occupational functioning.
This course was initially adapted with permission from the chapter by R. BarkleyChild Psychopathology 2nd ed. It has since been updated most recently in January Weikard was a prominent German physician who described symptoms of distractibility, poor persistence, impulsive actions, and inattention more generally quite similar to the symptoms used today to describe the inattention associated with ADHD.
Described as aggressive, passionate, lawless, inattentive, impulsive, and overactive, many of these children today would be diagnosed not only as ADHD but also as having oppositional defiant disorder ODD.
Interest in these children arose in North America around the time of the great encephalitis epidemics of Children surviving these brain infections had many behavioral problems similar to those comprising contemporary ADHD Ebaugh, ; Hohman, ; Stryker, This concept evolved into that of minimal brain damage, and eventually minimal brain dysfunction MBDas challenges were raised to the original label in view of the dearth of evidence of obvious brain injury in most cases see Kessler,for a more detailed history of MBD.
Despite a continuing belief among clinicians and researchers of this era that the condition had some sort of neurological origin, the larger influence of psychoanalytic thought held sway.
The recognition that the disorder was not caused by brain damage seemed to follow a similar argument made somewhat earlier by the prominent child psychiatrist Stella Chess It set off a major departure between professionals in North America and those in Europe that continues, to a lessening extent, to the present.
Europe continued to view hyperkinesis for most of the latter half of the 20th century as a relatively rare condition of extreme overactivity often associated with mental retardation or evidence of organic brain damage.
Nevertheless, the manner in which clinicians and educators view the disorder remains quite disparate; in North America, Canada, and Australia, such children have ADHD, a developmental disorder, whereas in Europe they are viewed as having conduct problem or disorder, a behavioral disturbance believed to arise largely out of family dysfunction and social disadvantage.
By the s, research emphasized the problems with sustained attention and impulse control in addition to hyperactivity Douglas, Douglastheorized that the disorder had four major deficits: Little research existed at the time on the latter subtype that would have supported such a distinction being made in an official and increasingly prestigious diagnostic taxonomy.Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time..
Research in the latter half of the 20th century showed that many. WEBLINK: An outline of Marr’s theory Biederman () put forward a theory that objects consist of basic shapes called “geons” (about 36 in total).
According to Biederman, the first step in object recognition is edge extraction, followed by deciding how a visual object should be segmented into components.
Biophilic design can reduce stress, enhance creativity and clarity of thought, improve our well-being and expedite healing; as the world population continues to urbanize, these qualities are ever more important. INTRODUCTION — Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that manifests in childhood with symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention.
The symptoms affect cognitive, academic, behavioral, emotional, and social functioning . (See 'Diagnostic criteria' below.). This topic review focuses on the clinical features and evaluation of ADHD.
One source of confusion surrounding adult ADHD is the controversy about the validity of the disorder, which has been exaggerated by the media but has also found its way into the medical literature. Pattern recognition consists mainly in describing the relations among a limited set of components task in biederman/cooper To name as quickly and as accurately as possible the partially-deleted image.